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The New Oxford Annotated Bible New Revised Standard Study Bible that provides essential scholarship and guidance for Bible readers.

Chapter 9

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1Now on the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, which is Adar, the decree written by the king arrived. 2On that same day the enemies of the Jews perished; no one resisted, because they feared them. 3The chief provincial governors, the princes, and the royal secretaries were paying honor to the Jews, because fear of Mordecai weighed upon them. 4The king's decree required that Mordecai's name be held in honor throughout the kingdom. b Gk he 6Now in the city of Susa the Jews killed five hundred people, 7including Pharsannestain, Delphon, Phasga, 8Pharadatha, Barea, Sarbacha, 9Marmasima, Aruphaeus, Arsaeus, Zabutheus, 10the ten sons of Haman son of Hammedatha, the Bougean, the enemy of the Jews—and they indulged c Other ancient witnesses read thirteenth; see 8.12 themselves in plunder.

11That very day the number of those killed in Susa was reported to the king. 12The king said to Esther, “In Susa, the capital, the Jews have destroyed five hundred people. What do you suppose they have done in the surrounding countryside? Whatever more you ask will be done for you.” 13And Esther said to the king, “Let the Jews be allowed to do the same tomorrow. Also, hang up the bodies of Haman's ten sons.” 14So he permitted this to be done, and handed over to the Jews of the city the bodies of Haman's sons to hang up. 15The Jews who were in Susa gathered on the fourteenth and killed three hundred people, but took no plunder.

16Now the other Jews in the kingdom gathered to defend themselves, and got relief from their enemies. They destroyed fifteen thousand of them, but did not engage in plunder. 17On the fourteenth day they rested and made that same day a day of rest, celebrating it with joy and gladness. 18The Jews who were in Susa, the capital, came together also on the fourteenth, but did not rest. They celebrated the fifteenth with joy and gladness. 19On this account then the Jews who are scattered around the country outside Susa keep the fourteenth of Adar as a joyful holiday, and send presents of food to one another, while those who live in the large cities keep the fifteenth day of Adar as their joyful holiday, also sending presents to one another.

20Mordecai recorded these things in a book, and sent it to the Jews in the kingdom of Artaxerxes both near and far, 21telling them that they should keep the fourteenth and fifteenth days of Adar, 22for on these days the Jews got relief from their enemies. The whole month (namely, Adar), in which their condition had been changed from sorrow into gladness and from a time of distress to a holiday, was to be celebrated as a time for feasting a Gk he and gladness and for sending presents of food to their friends and to the poor.

23So the Jews accepted what Mordecai had written to them 24—how Haman son of Hammedatha, the Macedonian, b Gk lacks the decree fought against them, how he made a decree and cast lots c Chapter 13.1–7 corresponds to chapter B 1–7 in some translations. to destroy them, 25and how he went in to the king, telling him to hang Mordecai; but the wicked plot he had devised against the Jews came back upon himself, and he and his sons were hanged. 26Therefore these days were called “Purim,” because of the lots (for in their language this is the word that means “lots”). And so, because of what was written in this letter, and because of what they had experienced in this affair and what had befallen them, Mordecai established this festival, d Gk the city 27and the Jews took upon themselves, upon their descendants, and upon all who would join them, to observe it without fail. e Gk When her These days of Purim should be a memorial and kept from generation to generation, in every city, family, and country. 28These days of Purim were to be observed for all time, and the commemoration of them was never to cease among their descendants.

29Then Queen Esther daughter of Aminadab along with Mordecai the Jew wrote down what they had done, and gave full authority to the letter about Purim. f Other ancient witnesses add 6So Hachratheus went out to Mordecai in the street of the city opposite the city gate. 31And Mordecai and Queen Esther established this decision on their own responsibility, pledging their own well‐being to the plan. e Gk When her 32Esther established it by a decree forever, and it was written for a memorial.

Notes:

c Gk he

a Other ancient witnesses read thirteenth; see 8.12

b Gk he

c Gk lacks the decree

d Chapter 13.1–7 corresponds to chapter B 1–7 in some translations.

a Gk the city

b Gk When her

c Other ancient witnesses add 6So Hachratheus went out to Mordecai in the street of the city opposite the city gate.

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