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The Catholic Study Bible A special version of the New American Bible, with a wealth of background information useful to Catholics.

Chapter 11

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Clean and Unclean Food. 1The LORD said to Moses and Aaron,* 2“Speak to the Israelites and tell them: Of all land animals these are the ones you may eat: 3any animal that has hoofs you may eat, provided it is cloven‐footed and chews the cud. 4But you shall not eat any of the following that only chew the cud or only have hoofs: the camel, which indeed chews the cud, but does not have hoofs and is therefore unclean for you; 5the rock badger,* which indeed chews the cud, but does not have hoofs and is therefore unclean for you; 6the hare, which indeed chews the cud, but does not have hoofs and is therefore unclean for you; and the pig, 7which does indeed have hoofs and is cloven‐footed, but does not chew the cud and is therefore unclean for you. 8Their flesh you shall not eat, and their dead bodies you shall not touch; they are unclean for you.

9“Of the various creatures that live in the water, you may eat the following: whatever in the seas or in river waters has both fins and scales you may eat. 10But of the various creatures that crawl or swim in the water, whether in the sea or in the rivers, all those that lack either fins or scales are loathsome for you, 11and you shall treat them as loathsome. Their flesh you shall not eat, and their dead bodies you shall loathe. 12Every water creature that lacks fins or scales is loathsome for you.

13“Of the birds, these you shall loathe and, as loathsome, they shall not be eaten:* the eagle, the vulture, the osprey, 14the kite, the various species of falcons, 15the various species of crows, 16the ostrich, the nightjar, the gull, the various species of hawks, 17the owl, the cormorant, the screech owl, 18the barn owl, the desert owl, the buzzard, 19the stork, the various species of herons, the hoopoe, and the bat.*

20“The various winged insects that walk on all fours are loathsome for you. 21But of the various winged insects that walk on all fours you may eat those that have jointed legs for leaping on the ground; 22hence of these you may eat the following: the various kinds of locusts,* the various kinds of grasshoppers, the various kinds of katydids, and the various kinds of crickets. 23All other winged insects that have four legs are loathsome for you.

24 * “Such is the uncleanness that you contract, that everyone who touches their dead bodies shall be unclean until evening, 25and everyone who picks up any part of their dead bodies shall wash his garments and be unclean until evening. 26All hoofed animals that are not cloven‐footed* or do not chew the cud are unclean for you; everyone who touches them becomes unclean. 27Of the various quadrupeds, all those that walk on paws* are unclean for you; everyone who touches their dead bodies shall be unclean until evening, 28and everyone who picks up their dead bodies shall wash his garments and be unclean until evening. Such is their uncleanness for you.

29“Of the creatures that swarm on the ground, the following are unclean for you: the rat, the mouse, the various kinds of lizards, 30the gecko, the chameleon, the agama, the skink, and the mole. 31Among the various swarming creatures, these are unclean for you. Everyone who touches them when they are dead shall be unclean until evening. 32Everything on which one of them falls when dead becomes unclean. Any such article that men use, whether it be an article of wood, cloth, leather or goat hair, must be put in water and remain unclean until evening, when it again becomes clean. 33Should any of these creatures fall into a clay vessel, everything in it becomes unclean, and the vessel itself you must break. 34Any solid food that was in contact with water, and any liquid that men drink, in any such vessel become unclean. 35Any object on which one of their dead bodies falls, becomes unclean; if it is an oven or a jar‐stand, this must be broken to pieces; they are unclean and shall be treated as unclean by you. 36However, a spring or a cistern for collecting water remains clean; but whoever touches the dead body* becomes unclean. 37Any sort of cultivated grain remains clean even though one of their dead bodies falls on it; 38but if the grain has become moistened, it becomes unclean when one of these falls on it.

39“When one of the animals that you could otherwise eat, dies of itself, anyone who touches its dead body shall be unclean until evening; 40and anyone who eats of its dead body shall wash his garments and be unclean until evening; e Lv 17, 15; 22, 8 . so also, anyone who removes its dead body shall wash his garments and be unclean until evening.

41“All the creatures that swarm on the ground are loathsome and shall not be eaten. 42Whether it crawls on its belly, goes on all fours, or has many legs, you shall eat no swarming creature: they are loathsome. 43Do not make yourselves loathsome or unclean with any swarming creature through being contaminated by them. f 43f: Lv 20, 25f . 44For I, the LORD, am your God; and you shall make and keep yourselves holy, because I am holy. g Lv 19, 2; 20, 7. 26; Mt 5, 48; 1 Pt 1, 16 . You shall not make yourselves unclean, then, by any swarming creature that crawls on the ground. 45Since I, the LORD, brought you up from the land of Egypt that I might be your God, you shall be holy, because I am holy.

46“This is the law for animals and birds and for all the creatures that move about in the water or swarm on the ground, 47that you may distinguish between the clean and the unclean, between creatures that may be eaten and those that may not be eaten.” h Lv 10, 10 .

Notes:

e: Lv 17, 15; 22, 8 .

f: 43f: Lv 20, 25f .

g: Lv 19, 2; 20, 7. 26; Mt 5, 48; 1 Pt 1, 16 .

h: Lv 10, 10 .

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