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The Oxford History of the Biblical World An in-depth chaptered work by leading scholars providing a chronological overview of the history of biblical times.

Select Bibliography

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Albright, William F. “The Israelite Conquest in the Light of Archaeology.” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 74 (1939): 11–22. Dated but useful survey of archaeological evidence in support of the “conquest” hypothesis of Israelite origins.

Alt, Albrecht. “The Settlement of the Israelites in Palestine.” In Essays on Old Testament History and Religion, 172–221. Trans. R. W. Wilson. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1968. Originally published in German in 1925, a pioneering study of “territorial history” in support of the “pastoral nomad” hypothesis of Israelite origins.

Bietak, Manfred. “The Sea Peoples and the End of the Egyptian Administration in Canaan.” In Biblical Archaeology Today, eds. Avraham Biran and Joseph Aviram, 292–306. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1990. Superb study of the Sea Peoples, emphasizing their large-scale seaborne migrations to and early bridgeheads in Canaan, and delineating material cultural boundaries between Philistine and Egypto-Canaanite territories.

Biran, Avraham, and Joseph Naveh. “An Aramaic Stele Fragment from Dan.” Israel Exploration Journal 43 (1993): 81–98. The stele has the earliest nonbiblical reference to the “house of David.”

Cross, Frank Moore. Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic: Essays in the History of the Religion of Israel. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1973. A masterpiece. For a more recent perspective, see the popularized account in Frank Moore Cross: Conversations with a Bible Scholar, ed. Hershel Shanks (Washington, D.C.: Biblical Archaeology Society, 1994).

———. “Reuben, First-Born of Jacob.” Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 100, Supplement (1988): 46–65. Chapter 3 in From Epic to Canon: Essays in the History and Literature of Ancient Israel. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998. A brilliant synthesis of textual and archaeological data relating to Midianites and early Israelites.

Dever, William G. “Archaeology and the Israelite ‘Conquest.’” In Anchor Bible Dictionary, ed. David Noel Freedman, 3.545–58. New York: Doubleday, 1992. Up-to-date, authoritative assessment of the archaeological evidence relating to the early Israelite settlement.

Finkelstein, Israel. The Archaeology of the Israelite Settlement. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1988. The most comprehensive presentation and analysis of archaeological survey data relating to the Israelite settlement.

Gottwald, Norman K. “Israel, Social and Economic Development of.” In The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible: Supplementary Volume, ed. Keith Crim, 465–68. Nashville: Abingdon, 1976. Condensed account of the author's “peasants' revolt” hypothesis. For the complete version, see his The Tribes of Yahweh: A Sociology of the Religion of Liberated Israel, 1250–1050 B.C.E. (Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis, 1979).

Khoury, Philip S., and Joseph Kostiner, eds. Tribes and State Formation in the Middle East. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990. A splendid collection of essays dealing with the relationship between tribe and state.

Machinist, Peter. “Outsiders or Insiders: The Biblical View of Emergent Israel and Its Contexts.” In The Other in Jewish Thought and History: Constructions of Jewish Culture and Identity, eds. Laurence J. Silberstein and Robert L. Cohn, 35–60. New York: New York University Press, 1994. An illuminating study of Israelite historiography with focus on the relationship of the community to the land.

Mendenhall, George. “The Hebrew Conquest of Palestine.” Biblical Archaeologist 25 (1962): 66–87. The original account of the “peasants' revolt” hypothesis, which stimulated a generation of creative biblical and theological research.

Na'aman, Nadav. “The ‘Conquest of Canaan’ in the Book of Joshua and in History.” In From Nomadism to Monarchy: Archaeological and Historical Aspects of Early Israel, ed. Israel Finkelstein and Nadav Na'aman, 218–81. Washington, D.C.: Biblical Archaeology Society, 1994. Detailed analysis of the sources used by the Deuteronomic Historian to construct his account of the Israelite “conquest.”

Parr, Peter. “Qurayya.” In Anchor Bible Dictionary, ed. David Noel Freedman, 5.594–96. New York: Doubleday, 1992. Brief, authoritative overview of the archaeology of Midian, with an essential bibliography. Parr's archaeological survey of that region has contributed to the revival and revision of the Midianite hypothesis.

Sandars, N. K. The Sea Peoples: Warriors of the Ancient Mediterranean 1250–1150 B.C. Rev. ed. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1985. An engaging account of the Sea Peoples for scholars and nonspecialists alike.

Schloen, J. David. “Caravans, Kenites, and Casus Belli: Enmity and Alliance in the Song of Deborah.” Catholic Biblical Quarterly 55 (1993): 18–38. An imaginative and convincing interpretation of Judges 5, according to which disruption of the Midianite trade in aromatics leads to war.

Stager, Lawrence E. “The Archaeology of the Family in Ancient Israel.” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 260 (1985): 1–35. Influential synthesis that combines archaeological and textual data to reconstruct early Israelite society.

———. “Israelite Settlement in Canaan.” In Biblical Archaeology Today, ed. Janet Amitai, 83–87. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1985. First formulation of the “ruralization” hypothesis and an attempt to separate the process of Iron Age I settlement from the problem of Israelite origins.

———. “Archaeology, Ecology, and Social History: Background Themes to the Song of Deborah.” Supplements to Vetus Testamentum 40 (1988): 221–34. A study that highlights the intersection of event (the battle of Kishon) and la longue durée (tribal economy and ecology).

———. “The Impact of the Sea Peoples (1185–1050 BCE).” In The Archaeology of Society in the Holy Land, ed. Thomas E. Levy, 332–48. New York: Facts on File, 1995. Up-to-date synthesis of texts and archaeology relating to the Sea Peoples, especially the Philistines, and their interaction with other groups in the Levant.

Voegelin, Eric. The Ecumenic Age. Vol. 4 of Order and History. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1974. The most profound study ever written of the symbols of order in the biblical and classical worlds. See also vol. 1, Israel and Revelation (1956).

Weber, Max. Economy and Society. Vol. 2. Ed. Guenther Roth and Claus Wittich. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978. Classic exposition of the theory of patrimonial authority.

Yurco, Frank J. “3,200-Year-Old Picture of Israelites Found in Egypt.” Biblical Archaeology Review 16, no. 5 (September–October 1990): 20–38. Popularized version of the author's extraordinary discovery linking the victory hymn of the Israel Stela to Merneptah's wall reliefs at Karnak.

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