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The Apocryphal New Testament Easy to use collection of English translations of the New Testament Apocrypha.

General Bibliography

Bibliography references:

Generally, journals and series are abbreviated in conformity with Siegfried Schwertner, International Glossary of Abbreviations for Theology and Related Subjects (Berlin, 1974). The Corpus Christianorum series are abbreviated CCA for the Series Apocryphorum and CCL for the Latin series. The volumes of Oxyrhynchus Papyri when abbreviated appear as OP.

Greek and Latin

  • Fabricius = J. A. Fabricius, Codex Apocryphus Novi Testamenti, 4 vols. (Hamburg, 21719).

  • Jones = J. Jones, A New and Full Method of Settling the Canonical Authority of the New Testament, 3 vols. (London, 1726–7; 2Oxford, 1798; 31827).

  • Birch = A. Birch, Auctarium Codicis Apocryphi Novi Testamenti Fabriciani, i (Copenhagen, 1804).

  • Thilo = J. C. Thilo, Codex Apocryphus Novi Testamenti, i (Leipzig, 1832).

  • Giles = J. A. Giles, Codex Apocryphus Novi Testamenti: The Uncanonical Gospels and Other Writings (London, 1852).

  • Tischendorf, Apoc. Apoc. = C. Tischendorf, Apocalypses Apocryphae (Leipzig, 1866; repr. Hildesheim, 1966).

  • Tischendorf, EA = id., Evangelia Apocrypha (Leipzig, 21876; repr. Hildesheim, 1966 and 1987). [Tischendorf's dissertation on apocryphal gospels acts as an introduction to his collection of texts (the first edition of which was published in 1852): De evangeliorum apocryphorum origine et usu (The Hague, 1851).]

  • James, Apoc. Anec. = M. R. James, Apocrypha Anecdota, 2 vols. (Cambridge, 1893 and 1897; repr. Nendeln, Liechenstein, 1967) (= Texts and Studies 2.3 and 5.1).

  • Lipsius–Bonnet = R. A. Lipsius and M. Bonnet, Acta Apostolorum Apocrypha, 3 vols. (Leipzig, 1891, 1898, 1903; repr. Hildesheim, 1959).

  • Preuschen = E. Preuschen, Antilegomena (Giessen, 1901; 21905).

  • Klostermann, Apocrypha = E. Klostermann, Apocrypha, i (Bonn, 1903; 21908, 1921; 3Berlin, 1929) (= Kleine Texte 3, ed. H. Lietzmann); Apocrypha, ii (Bonn, 1904; 21910; 3Berlin, 1929) (= Kleine Texte 8, ed. H. Lietzmann); Apocrypha, iii (Bonn, 21911) (= Kleine Texte 11, ed. H. Lietzmann).


  • Guidi, AAL.R/Giornale = I. Guidi, ‘Frammenti copti’, Atti della Reale Accademia dei Lincei. Rendiconti. Classe di scienze morali, storiche e filologiche (Rome, 1884–7); Italian translations in ‘Gli atti apocrifi degli Apostoli nei testi copti, arabi ed etiopici’, Giornale della Società Asiatica Italiana 2 (1888).

  • O. von Lemm, Koptische apokryphe Apostelakten, i (St Petersburg, 1890) (= Mélanges Asiatiques 10.1).

  • P. Lacau, Fragments d'apocryphes coptes (Cairo, 1904) (= Mémoires publiés par les membres de l'institut français d'archéologie orientale du Caire 9).

  • E. Revillout, Les Apocryphes coptes, i. Les Évangiles des douze apôtres et de S. Barthélemy (Paris, 1907 and 1913) (= PO 2.2 and 9).

  • F. Morard, ‘Notes sur le recueil copte des actes apocryphes des apôtres’, RTP 113 (1981), 403–13.


  • Wright, Contributions = W. Wright, Contributions to the Apocryphal Literature of the New Testament (London, 1865).

  • Wright, Apoc. Acts = id., Apocryphal Acts of the Apostles, 2 vols. (London and Edinburgh, 1871; repr. Amsterdam, 1968).


  • Leloir, CCA = L. Leloir, Écrits apocryphes sur les apôtres: Traduction de l’édition arménienne de Venise, i. Pierre, Paul, André, Jacques, Jean (Turnhout, 1986) (= CCA 3); ii. (Turnhout, 1992) (= CCA 4).


  • Malan = S. C. Malan, The Conflicts of the Holy Apostles (London, 1871).

  • Wallis Budge, Contendings = E. A. Wallis Budge, The Contendings of the Apostles, 2 vols. (London, 1899 and 1901; 21935; repr. London, 1976).


  • Smith Lewis, Acta Myth./Myth. Acts = A. Smith Lewis, Acta Mythological Apostolorum; Eng. trans. The Mythological Acts of the Apostles (London, 1904) (= Horae Semiticae 3 and 4).

  • Graf = G. Graf, Geschichte der christlichen arabischen Literatur, i (Vatican City, 1944) (= Studi e Testi 118).


  • Kurcikidze = C. Kurcikidze, [Georgian versions of the Apocryphal Acts of the Apostles] (Tblisi, 1959).


  • de Santos Otero, Altslav. Apok. = A. de Santos Otero, Die handschriftliche Überlieferung der altslavischen Apokryphen 2 vols. (Berlin and New York, 1978, 1981) (= Patristische Texte und Studien, 20 and 23).

Bibliography references:

References to the index pages of the following synopses are given when these editions include an apocryphal text among the parallels displayed.

  • Aland13 = K. Aland, Synopsis Quattuor Evangeliorum (13th edn., Stuttgart, 1985).

  • Huck–Greeven13 = A. Huck, Synopse der drei ersten Evangelien; Synopsis of the First Three Gospels 13th edn., rev. H. Greeven (Tübingen, 1981).

  • Boismard = M.‐E. Boismard and A. Lamouille, Synopsis Graeca Quattuor Evangeliorum (Leuven and Paris, 1986).

Bibliography references:

The works below appear in the text in abbreviated form.

  • Augustine, c. Adimantum = contra Adimantum, ed. J. Zycha, CSEL 25.1 (Vienna, Prague, Leipzig, 1891).

  • —— c. Faust. = contra Faustum Manicheum, ed. J. Zycha, CSEL 25.1 (Vienna, Prague, Leipzig, 1891).

  • Clement of Alexandria, Strom. = Stromateis, ed. O. Stählin: vol. ii, GCS 52 (15) (Leipzig, 1906; 3rev. L. Früchtel and U. Treu, Berlin, 1960; 4rev. U. Treu, Berlin, 1985); vol. iii, GCS 172 (Leipzig, 1909; 2rev. L. Früchtel and U. Treu, Berlin, 1970).

  • Epiphanius, adv. Haer. = Panarion or adversus LXXX Haereses, ed. K. Holl, GCS 25 (Leipzig, 1915); GCS 31 (Leipzig, 1922; 2rev. J. Dummer, Berlin, 1980).

  • Eusebius, HE = Historia Ecclesiastica, ed. E. Schwartz, GCS 9.1 and 9.2 (Leipzig, 1903, 1908).

  • Hippolytus, Haer. = Refutatio Omnium Haeresium or Philosophoumena, ed. P. Wendland, GCS 26 (Leipzig, 1916).

  • Irenaeus, adv. Haer. = adversus Haereses, ed. A. Rousseau, SC (Paris, 1965–82).

  • Jerome, de Vir. Ill. = de Viris Illustribus, ed. E. C. Richardson, TU 14.1 (Leipzig, 1896).

  • —— on Matt. = Commentary on Matthew, ed. D. Hurst and M. Adriaen, CCL 77 (Turnhout, 1969).

  • John of Damascus, Parall. = Sacred Parallels, ed. K. Holl, TU 20.1 (Leipzig, 1899).

  • Origen, on Matt. = Commentary on Matthew, ed. E. Klostermann and E. Benz, GCS 40.1 (Leipzig, 1935).

  • —— Hom. on Luke = Homilies on Luke, ed. M. Rauer, GCS 49 (35) (Berlin, 21959).

  • —— on John = Commentary on John, ed. E. Preuschen, GCS 10 (Berlin, 1903).


  • Hone = W. Hone, The Apocryphal New Testament (London, 1820).

  • Walker = A. Walker, Apocryphal Gospels, Acts and Revelations (Edinburgh, 1870) (= A. Roberts and J. Donaldson (eds.), Ante‐Nicene Christian Library 16).

  • Cowper = B. H. Cowper, The Apocryphal Gospels and Other Documents relating to the History of Christ (Edinburgh and London, 21867).

  • A. Menzies (ed.), Ante‐Nicene Christian Library: Additional Volume (Edinburgh, 1897) = Vol. ix following the American edition of the eight volumes of ANCL produced as the Ante‐Nicene Fathers (Buffalo, 1880: rev. and suppl., Grand Rapids, 1967).

  • Pick = B. Pick, The Apocryphal Acts of Paul, Peter, John, Andrew, and Thomas (London, 1909).

  • Westcott = A. Westcott, The Gospel of Nicodemus and Kindred Documents (London, 1915).

  • James, ANT = M. R. James, The Apocryphal New Testament (Oxford, 1924; corrected edn., 1953).

  • H. J. Schonfield, Readings from the Apocryphal Gospels (London, 1940).

  • Grant and Freedman = R. M. Grant and D. N. Freedman, The Secret Sayings of Jesus (London, 1960).

  • Hennecke3 = E. Hennecke, New Testament Apocrypha, ed. W. Schneemelcher, Eng. trans. ed. R. McL. Wilson, 2 vols. (London, 1963 and 1965).

  • Hennecke5 = W. Schneemelcher (ed.), New Testament Apocrypha, Eng. trans. by R. McL. Wilson, 2 vols. (Cambridge and Louisville, 1991, 1992).

  • Cartlidge and Dungan = D. R. Cartlidge and D. L. Dungan, Documents for the Study of the Gospels (Philadelphia, 1980).

  • Cameron = R. Cameron, The Other Gospels: Non‐Canonical Gospel Texts (Philadelphia, 1983).


  • Migne, Dictionnaire = J. P. Migne, Dictionnaire des Apocryphes, 2 vols. (Paris, 1856 and 1958; repr. Turnhout, 1989) (= Troisième et dernière encyclopédie théologique 23 and 24).

  • Michel = C. Michel, Évangiles apocryphes, i (Paris, 1911; 21914) (= H. Hemmer and P. Lejay (eds.), Textes et documents pour l’étude historique du Christianisme 13).

  • Vouaux = L. Vouaux, Les Actes de Paul et ses lettres apocryphes (Paris, 1913) (= Les apocryphes du Nouveau Testament, ed. J. Bousquet and E. Amann).

  • Amiot = F. Amiot, La Bible apocryphe: Évangiles apocryphes (Paris, 1952) (= Textes pour l'histoire sacrée, ed. H. Daniel‐Rops).

  • F. Quéré, Évangiles apocryphes (Paris, 1983).

  • Éac = F. Bovon and P. Geoltrain (eds.), Écrits apocryphes chrétiens I (Paris, 1997).


  • Clemens = R. Clemens, Die geheimgehaltenen oder sogenannten apokryphen Evangelien, 2 vols. (Stuttgart, 1850).

  • Michaelis = W. Michaelis, Die apokryphen Schriften zum Neuen Testament (Bremen, 1956; 31962) (= Sammlung Dieterich 129).

  • Hennecke1 = E. Hennecke, Neutestamentliche Apokryphen in deutscher Übersetzung (Tübingen and Leipzig, 1904; 21924).

  • Handbuch = E. Hennecke, Handbuch zu den Neutestamentlichen Apokryphen (Tübingen, 1904).

  • Hennecke3 = E. Hennecke, Neutestamentliche Apokryphen in deutscher Übersetzung, 3rd edn. by W. Schneemelcher, 2 vols. (Tübingen, 1959 and 1964).

  • Hennecke5 = E. Hennecke, Neutestamentliche Apokryphen in deutscher Übersetzung, 5th edn. by W. Schneemelcher, 2 vols. (Tübingen, 1987 and 1989). [The sixth edition is a corrected reprinting of the fifth.]


  • Bonaccorsi = G. Bonaccorsi, Vangeli Apocrifi, i (Florence, 1948).

  • M. Cravieri, I Vangeli apocrifi (Turin, 1969).

  • Moraldi = L. Moraldi, Apocrifi del Nuovo Testamento, 2 vols. (Turin, 1971) (= Classici delle religioni, v. Le altre confessioni cristiane, ed. L. Firpo).

  • Erbetta = M. Erbetta, Gli apocrifi del Nuovo Testamento, 3 vols. (Casale Monferrato, i.1, 1975; i.2, 1981; ii, 1966, 21978; iii, 1981).


  • González‐Blanco = E. González‐Blanco, Los Evangelios Apócrifos, 3 vols. (Madrid, 1934).

  • de Santos Otero = A. de Santos Otero, Los Evangelios Apócrifos (Madrid, 21963) (= Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos, Sección i. Sagradas Escrituras 148). [The 6th edn. of 1988 is used only for the Coptic Gospel of Thomas. Otherwise the 2nd edn. is cited; the pagination differs in the 6th edn.]


  • A. F. J. Klijn, Apokriefen van het Nieuwe Testament, 2 vols. (Kampen, 1985).


  • J. J. Müller, Nuwe‐Testamentiese Apokriewe (Cape Town, Bloemfontein, Johannesberg, 1959, 21976).


  • M. Starowieysky, Apokryfy Nowego Testamentu, 2 vols. (Lublin, 1980).

Bibliography references:

  • Variot = J. Variot, Les Évangiles apocryphes: Histoire littéraire, forme primitive, transformations (Paris, 1878).

  • Lipsius = R. A. Lipsius, Die apokryphen Apostelgeschichten und Apostellegenden, 3 vols. and supplement (Brunswick, 1883–90; repr. Amsterdam, 1976), esp. i. 1–117.

  • Zahn, Kanon = T. Zahn, Geschichte des neutestamentlichen Kanons: Das Neue Testament vor Origines, 2 vols. (i, Leipzig, 1888–9; ii, Erlangen and Leipzig, 1890–2).

  • Harnack = A. von Harnack, Geschichte der altchristlichen Literatur bis Eusebius, i. Die Überlieferung und der Bestand; ii. Die Chronologie, (i) bis Irenäus, (ii) von Irenäus bis Eusebius (Leipzig, i, 1893; ii (i), 1897; ii (ii), 1904).

  • W. Bauer, Das Leben Jesu im Zeitalter der neutestamentlichen Apokryphen (Tübingen, 1909).

  • Findlay = A. F. Findlay, Byways in Early Christian Literature (Edinburgh, 1923).

  • Rosa Söder, Die apokryphen Apostelgeschichten und die romanhafte Literatur der Antike (Stuttgart, 1932; repr. Stuttgart, Berlin, Cologne, Mainz, 1969).

  • M. Blumenthal, Formen und Motive in den apokryphen Apostelgeschichten (Leipzig, 1933) (= TU 48.1).

  • Ehrhard = A. Ehrhard, Überlieferung und Bestand der hagiographischen und homiletischen Literatur der griechischen Kirche von den Anfangen bis zum Ende des 16. Jahrhunderts, 2 vols. (Leipzig, 1937–8) (= TU 50, 51). [Vol. iii published posthumously (Berlin, 1952 = TU 52).]

  • K. L. Schmidt, Kanonische und apokryphe Evangelien und Apostelgeschichte (Basle, 1944) (= Abhandlungen zur Theologie des Alten und Neuen Testaments 5).

  • J. Quasten, Patrologie, i (Utrecht and Brussels, 1950).

  • B. Altaner, Patrology (Edinburgh and London, 1958). [Eng. trans. of Patrologie, 5th German edn. (Freiburg, 1958).]

  • Hennecke3, ii. 110–25 (W. Schneemelcher and K. Schäferdiek); Eng. trans. ii. 167–88.

  • Hennecke5, ii. 71–93 (W. Schneemelcher and K. Schäferdiek); Eng. trans. ii. 75–100.

  • [Cf. E. Hennecke, in Hennecke1, 346–51, and Handbuch, 351–8.]

  • A. Hamman, ‘ “Sitz im Leben” des actes apocryphes du Nouveau Testament’, in F. L. Cross (ed.). Studia Patristica 8.2 (Berlin, 1960), 62–9 (= TU 93).

  • Bauer = J. B. Bauer, Die neutestamentlichen Apokryphen (Düsseldorf, 1968) (= Die Welt der Bibel 21).

  • F. F. Bruce, Jesus and Christian Origins outside the New Testament (London, 1974; 21984).

  • Plümacher = A. Plümacher, ‘Apokryphe Apostelakten’, in G. Wissowa et al. (eds.), Paulys Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, Supplementband 15 (Munich, 1978), cols. 11–70.

  • S. L. Davies, The Revolt of the Widows: The Social World of the Apocryphal Acts (Carbondale, Edwardsville, London, Amsterdam, 1980).

  • F. Bovon (ed.), Les Actes apocryphes des apôtres: Christianisme et monde païen (Geneva, 1981) (= Publications de la Faculté de Théologie de l'Université de Genève 4).

  • D. R. MacDonald (ed.), The Apocryphal Acts of the Apostles (Decatur, Ga., 1986) (= Semeia 38).

  • R. I. Pervo, Profit with Delight: The Literary Genre of the Acts of the Apostles (Philadelphia, 1987). [He finds closer links between the canonical Acts and the apocryphal Acts than is often allowed for.]

For general introductions to apocryphal literature:

  • Vielhauer = P. Vielhauer, Geschichte der urchristlichen Literatur: Einleitung in das Neue Testament, die Apokryphen und die apostolischen Väter (Berlin and New York, 1975), 613–718.

  • R. McL. Wilson, ‘Apokryphen II: Apokryphen des Neuen Testaments’ TRE iii. 317–62.

  • Helmut Koester, ‘Apocryphal and Canonical Gospels’, HTR 73 (1980), 105–30.

  • Helmut Koester, Introduction to the New Testament, ii. History and Literature of Early Christianity (Berlin and New York, 1982). [Eng. trans. of part of Einführung in das Neue Testament.]

  • R. W. Funk, New Gospel Parallels, 2 vols. (Philadelphia, 1985) (= Foundations and Facets 5 and 6). [For cross‐references to canonical and other apocryphal works.]

  • B. M. Metzger, The Canon of the New Testament: Its Origin, Development, and Significance (Oxford, 1987).

  • Charlesworth = J. H. Charlesworth and J. R. Mueller, The New Testament Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha: A Guide to Publications (Metuchen and London, 1987) (= American Theological Library Association Bibliography Series 17).

  • J. H. Charlesworth, ‘Research on the New Testament Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha’, ANRW 2.25.5, 3919–68.

  • S. Gero, ‘Apocryphal Gospels: A Survey of Textual and Literary Problems’, ANRW 2.25.5, 3979–84.

  • Bentley Layton, The Gnostic Scriptures (London, 1987).

  • J. M. Robinson (ed.), The Nag Hammadi Library in English (Leiden, 1977; 31988).

  • R. McL. Wilson, ‘New Testament Apocrypha’, in E. J. Epp and G. W. Macrae (eds.), The New Testament and its Modern Interpreters (Philadelphia and Atlanta, 1989), 429–55 (= D. A. Knight (ed.), The Bible and its Modern Interpreters 3).

  • William D. Stroker, Extracanonical Sayings of Jesus (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1989) (= Society of Biblical Literature Resources for Biblical Study 18).

  • Helmut Koester, Ancient Christian Gospels: Their History and Development (London and Philadelphia, 1990).

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